The early 21st century living standards and comforts for humans (Homo sapiens sapiens) and technology-based lifestyle has become possible because of the foundations laid by breakthroughs made in Science and Technology, Innovation through Automation and Mechanization during the 20th century. However, the 22nd century is going to be shaped by Unification of Science and Convergence of Technologies – a single theory which can explain the working of planets and at the same time show how atoms and subatomic particles behave. This necessity to find single unified theory in science is enabling the convergence of Nanotechnology (material technology), Biotechnology, Information Technology and Cognitive Technology which is laying down the platform for an intelligent future world. In everyday life we can observe the technological enhancement happening in simple gadgets and devices around us. Today there are microprocessors which have 1 billion transistors which indicate that microelectronics will slowly phase out and be replaced with Nanoelectronics. 30 years ago nobody would have believed that a touch screen as thin as human hair now available  in devices like mobile , tablets and other devices available in the market today would have been a possibility.

Cyborgs which we have seen only in movies are becoming a reality in laboratories through Nanobioelectronics and Neurobioelectronics because of the convergence in biotechnology and electronics at nano dimensions. There are many devices and techniques like memory resistors and brain machine interface which are being developed to replicate the functionalities of human brain. These developments have become the foundation for Cognitive Technology with rapid progress in last 10 years in the fields of Brain Science, Neuromodulation, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), Robotics, Machine Learning and implantable Neuroprosthetics. Travelling into space will slowly become a normal lifestyle due to convergence in other technologies related materials (Nano, Energy), working with living cells and biomaterials (Bio), replicating the processes and decision making abilities of neurons (Cogno) and high speed, high volume data analytics through computing processors (IT).

 

The present crisis in environment, energy, population growth and sustainability of human species can only be solved through this convergence of technologies. It is agreed in the research communities that the IT age, will be followed by Nano age, to  be followed by Cogno and finally real space age. Being a country of 1.3 billion population and still growing strong, India’s contribution to progress of modern Science and Technology in the last two centuries, is very much limited. Off late we have become a country of service engineers, doctors and managers who are dependent on developed countries for the economic growth & technology. At the same time we proudly display the gadgets and other technological marvels created in these developed countries and boast about our growth and recent IT service based success stories.

 

Remember, it is a globalized world, and only countries which create, discover, invent and innovate and contribute in the real sense to modern technology and scientific development are powerful and will lead from the front. That’s why today Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning have destabilized the Indian IT service industry which was totally dependent on developed countries for VISA, projects and profit margins. Low-cost skilled laborers alone cannot sustain a country.  More inventors and innovators are needed to make a country independent and developed.

In this context only contributors are remembered and revered. Einsteins, Ramans, Mendels, Faradays will be valued and their work will be studied in detail as long as the human species exists. But how many Indians are listed in any Science, or technical books or how many scientific laws are there named after Indians?  Which of the gadgets that we use in our day-to-day life like mobile, television, radio, satellite, communication system, aircrafts, missiles, X-rays, MRI, were invented in India? Much of the progress that has been made in India in last 70 years has been due to the contribution of genuine researchers who are less than 10 % of the population.

The problem faced by this country could be solved only by making indigenous cost-effective technology for localized problems. And this can happen only if our education system which has become factory that produces   “Literate English-Speaking Skilled Laborers” starts revamping itself towards quality research. This has to be coupled with open minds and freedom for young minds to dream and imagine. Hands-on experience with creativity ably supported with right theory and skill sets are the need of the time (as depicted in Bollywood movie 3 Idiots).

Young Indian students should take up research as a career with passion which will take this country back to its glory days 5000 years ago when Science and Technology prospered.

 

Author Name:

Prof.Rabinder Henry

Director

Pralhad P Chhabria Research Center (PPCRC), Pune

Prof. Rabinder. Henry is currently the Director at Pralhad P.Chhabria Research Center, Pune (A Project of Finolex). His thrust areas of work have been in transforming the education system specifically in Engineering Higher Education by making it more applied intelligence oriented. Formerly been Director for Engineering Colleges and also been CTO in the industry. He has a Master of Science Degrees in RF & Microwave Engineering (1) and Photonics (2) from Technical University Dresden and Master of Science in Medical Systems Engineering (3) form University of Magdeburg, Germany. He has worked with Fraunhofer Institute for Photonics Microsystems, Institute for Mikrosystemtechnik, Magdbeurg and Helmholtz Zentrum Rossendorf, Germany. His areas of interest include Microwave Engineering, Microfabrication, Bio implants, Photonics, Nanotechnology and convergence of technology. Professional member of many bodies IEEE, VLSI Society of India, ISTE, and ISC etc. Established Institutes at Meerut, Jaipur and Pune.

His profile has been published by Marquis Publications in Who’s Who in World 2009. Global Young Leader by UNDP (United Nations Development Program) for Peace Initiative in 2008. Awarded by Society for Reliability Engineering, Quality and Operations Management (SREQOM) for Innovative Applications of Information Technology in Interdisciplinary areas in Science and Technology, December 2009.

Over the last four decades; starting from 1971, when the fabrication of the first microprocessor with 1MHz operation happened, there has been an unprecedented rapid development in Computer-based solutions and operations across all aspects of human life and activities. Similarly in 1983 with the invention of hand-held mobile by Martin Cooper and team at Motorola, came the mobile revolution starting from early 2000. Currently, miniaturized microprocessors and microcontrollers along with the evolution of high speed internet have been transforming the world since 2010. The tremendous growth in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and their convergence has made human life much easier. Collective intelligence and behavioral aspect of socially networked population which enjoys high speed communication, touch screen based gadgets, has transformed the community into a device-addicted society. In last five years starting from 2012 there have been major breakthroughs in Artificial Intelligence and automation that has led to new and emerging domains which were just imaginary a decade ago.

So it necessitates an aspiring engineer to widen his/her thought process and look at fundamentals more seriously in order to be part of the upcoming active workforce. Couple of years ago an engineering graduate with limited knowledge in specific domain could have easily landed a job in the IT-based service industry; particularly in India. All that was required was basic arithmetic and good communication skills particular in the English Language,  But now domains like Artificial Intelligence , Cloud Computing, Big Data Analytics, Internet of Things, 3D Printing, Flexible Manufacturing, Nano Satellite, Machine Learning, Digital Agriculture, Intelligent Healthcare   have taken over  the world. There have been remarkable changes in job skills required and career growth patterns in the Indian context due to these new technologies which require different sets of skills and knowledge in specific domain.

So, if an individual who wants to be an engineer he/she should have some idea about what domains he/she may end up working in after passing the basic bachelors degree in engineering, technology or science. Though the domain names changes continuously over time, the fundamentals remain the same. Most of the current emerging disciplines are based on earlier developed technologies. For example, the Internet of Things (IoT) is the product of convergence of Automation, Sensor Design, Actuators, Embedded System, Wireless Communication and Networking.  So what the industry is looking for is a passionate engineer; one with strong fundamentals in one particular domain and sufficient understanding of related disciplines. Since programming has become must for all, that alone as a skill cannot suffice the industry requirements any more. Secondly, with the growth in automation and AI it has become a must for an engineer to have in-depth knowledge in a specific engineering discipline. AI and Machine Learning is all about providing intelligence to the already available in conventional machinery and equipment. In this context let’s have a look at few of the emerging disciplines by 2025.

IoT-Wearable Electronics

The present day technology offers solutions to reduce the cost and at the same time provide quality diagnostic, monitoring, therapeutic solutions for management of patients’ healthcare.  The major focus of this research area is towards developing low cost embedded solutions for real-time data collections from patients. Simultaneously it focuses on developing technology to communicate sensor’s data wirelessly for IoT applications.

To pursue a career in this domain, students would require a B.E. degree in Information Technology (IT) / Computer Engineering (CE/CSE/ CS) / Electronics & Telecommunication (E&TC) / Chemical Engineering / Mechanical Engineering.  But more importantly, they should have additional skills in Embedded Systems Design / Programming Languages and ability to work with interfaces.  Specializations in Embedded Systems, Wireless Communication, Mechatronics, Biomedical Engineering or Communication Engineering at Masters Level is also required.

3D Printing Technology

3D Rapid prototyping have seen tremendous growth in recent years. But it is still at its infancy in India. The main aim of this technology-based research is to design, develop and implement low cost prototyping systems and flexible manufacturing systems to focus on indigenous requirements.

A passion for 3-D based design alongside a B.E. degree is a must to look at opportunities in this field.  Sound knowledge of inter-disciplinary areas of Mechanical and Embedded Systems Design is essential. Being electronic based, a passion for hardware is also expected.  To enhance knowledge after under graduate (B.E.), students must try and pursue a Masters Degree in Flexible Manufacturing / Industrial Design / Product Design / Mechatronics / Biomedical as well; as many biological materials are now being printed using this technology.

Satellite Engineering

 Micro and Nano satellites have been restricted to academic research in the last two decades. Availability of powerful, low cost and less weight processing systems have created new commercial space for development of Nanosatellites for low altitude applications. Research in this area is focused towards two sectors – one, developing Stationary High Altitude Relay Platform (SHARP) and two, developing swarm based Nanosatellites for space applications.

A B.E. in Computer Engineering (CE / CSE / CS) / Electronics & Telecommunication (E&TC) / Information Technology (IT) / Electronics is a pre-requisite for considering a career in this area.  More importantly, students should have good skills in using tools like Labview / Matlab or any CAD tools.  A Postgraduate specialization in Satellite Engineering or Wireless Communication is also vital if one wants to be successful in this sphere.

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

 Autonomous & Remotely Controlled UAV and terrestrial vehicles research is focused on developing application specific systems. The applications include agriculture, defence and remote monitoring systems. The development also includes integration with IoT platforms specifically for civilian use.

 

If a student is keen to pursue his / her career into this area, he/ should first obtain a B.E. in Mechanical Engineering / Electronics / Electronics & Telecommunication (E&TC) / Computer Engineering (CSE / CE / CS) / Information Technology (IT).  The basic degree needs to be augmented with a sound knowledge of Embedded Hardware and design skills using CAD / CAM tools and a Post graduate specialization in Aerospace Systems / Robotics / Mechatronics / Aviation Engineering or Technology / Space Communication.

Alternative Energy Systems

 The alternative energy scenario has been growing steadily in the last two decades. Solar and Wind based energy solutions have developed rapidly with breakthrough in semiconductor technologies and turbine design. The goal is to develop low cost monitoring and energy management systems for IoT applications. These applications include Smart City solutions and remote monitoring systems.

To take up a career in this challenging sector, students would have to complete a B.E. / B.Tech in Electrical Engineering / Chemical Engineering / Mechanical Engineering; but being inter-disciplinary, it is imperative that students utilize their under graduate time to develop a passion for Embedded Systems / Basic Electronics.  This will help them get into the industry directly.  A PG / MS / M Tech in Energy Systems / Solar Powered Systems / Nuclear Engineering / Production Engineering /  Power Electronics will augment a student’s career growth in this field.

Aeroponics

 Aeroponics is a new technology based on soilless growth of plants. Considering the climatic changes and decrease in land used for agriculture, Aeroponics offers solutions to use the open spaces as well concrete structures available for maximum production of agricultural products. The researches in this area are focused on developing low cost portable systems as wells large area smart monitoring systems for agriculture. The systems include interfaces for IoT and remote sensing technologies.

Though the domain is related to agriculture, technical skills are what are important.  A student who wishes to develop his / her career in this field should hold a B.E. degree in Electrical / Electronics & Telecommunication (E&TC) but must definitely has a passion for Embedded Systems Design / Wireless Communication as well as an enthusiasm for agricultural techniques and farm equipment.  With these knowledge, students can directly get into the industry; if not, they can pursue their Masters / Research in Digital Agriculture / Urbanized Agriculture / Environmental Sciences / Energy Systems.

Intelligent Transportation system

 With evolution of hi-quality cameras and sensor design, self-driving cars have today become a reality. Cost and energy consumption have been the major stumbling blocks for the evolution of self-driving cars; but precise brushless dc motors and energy storage technologies have significantly upgraded the self-driven system. Self-Learning Systems, Machine Learning and allied domains have enabled the computing platform in cars to take decisions that are similar to human thought processes.

To passionately engage in this domain, students would have to successfully complete a B.E. in Mechanical Engineering / Chemical Engineering / Electronics.  Besides, they would have to develop an interest in understanding and working on Embedded Systems and/or Wireless Communication.  Besides, learning some CAD tools is very important too especially in the area of 3-D modeling.  This will get into directly into the industry where they can apply their knowledge.  Higher education into Masters can be pursued in Robotics / Energy Systems / Automotive Embedded Systems / Production Engineering.

Photonics

 Photonics is an emerging technology that co-exists with VLSI and microelectronics. To overcome the limitations posed by Silicon-based chip design, light based technologies are making rapid progress across the world. Photonic Integrated Circuits have consistently emerged and are part of most of the Chip design CAD tools presently available in the market.

If a student wishes to take up a career in this sphere, he/she would have to complete a B.E. in Electrical / Electronics / Electronics & Telecommunication (E&TC).  Capability and efficiency in using simulation tools like CAMSOL / ANSYS will be an added advantage.  More importantly, the student should be focused towards research.  Keenness to study further in Photonics Engineering / Optical Communication Systems / Nanotechnology / Micro Fabrication is imperative.  Alongside this learning tools like LUCEDA / PHOENIX / PHOTON DESIGN will be advantageous.  

Those who are passionate about becoming an successful engineer in these spheres must have inherent interest towards Creating, Building And Analyzing Things Scientifically. Programming skills and the ability to build with hands is a must for all irrespective of the educational qualification one chooses to pursue..

As an engineer one needs to start with a basic undergraduate degree B.E. and follow it up with specialization at the Masters level.  This can guarantee a stable career. As the IT service industry stabilizes from the recent setbacks due to technology and visa related issues, the pay packets at the entry level are predicted to go down to almost half of what is was a year ago.  For an individual with a yearning to learn, the ability to manage things independently and progress, entrepreneurship can be a good option. But caution has be to taken that ideas are good only if they can be commercialized. Service-based entrepreneurship is purely dependent on consumers’ spending ability and application tools android ( like Ola and Uber kind of apps). Most successful ones are the ideas wherein the core is product, like Elon Musk who began with small software company but later was able to combine his skill with passion to create SpaceX and TESLA motors. Far sightedness and having genuine interest are the keys that make successful technocrats.

Author Name:

Prof.Rabinder Henry

Director

Pralhad P Chhabria Research Center (PPCRC), Pune

Prof. Rabinder. Henry is currently the Director at Pralhad P.Chhabria Research Center, Pune (A Project of Finolex). His thrust areas of work have been in transforming the education system specifically in Engineering Higher Education by making it more applied intelligence oriented. Formerly been Director for Engineering Colleges and also been CTO in the industry. He has a Master of Science Degrees in RF & Microwave Engineering (1) and Photonics (2) from Technical University Dresden and Master of Science in Medical Systems Engineering (3) form University of Magdeburg, Germany. He has worked with Fraunhofer Institute for Photonics Microsystems, Institute for Mikrosystemtechnik, Magdbeurg and Helmholtz Zentrum Rossendorf, Germany. His areas of interest include Microwave Engineering, Microfabrication, Bio implants, Photonics, Nanotechnology and convergence of technology. Professional member of many bodies IEEE, VLSI Society of India, ISTE, and ISC etc. Established Institutes at Meerut, Jaipur and Pune.

His profile has been published by Marquis Publications in Who’s Who in World 2009. Global Young Leader by UNDP (United Nations Development Program) for Peace Initiative in 2008. Awarded by Society for Reliability Engineering, Quality and Operations Management (SREQOM) for Innovative Applications of Information Technology in Interdisciplinary areas in Science and Technology, December 2009.

We, the youth, are the ambassadors of the 21st century; the millennium when we have witnessed transformations in all dimensions and horizons. Ever since the revolution of technology began and the ‘Digital India’ mission kicked off, almost all services and applications are intended to migrate to the world of binaries; right from astrology to astronomy, horoscope to medicines, technology to business and what not. An amazing paradigm shift is apparent from the very fact that businesses like small-scale, medium-scale and large-scale have been and are migrating to digital platforms. The advent in technologies from multidimensional perspectives has paved the way to all classes of people, right from the naïve technology user to the experienced technology professional, to help adapt and adopt technology. However, not to be rude, 21st century should be titled as the Age of Dissatisfaction.

In the run to bring out new innovations, providing faster access to technologies and end-to-end product deliverables, somewhere the human race has forgotten that these things are being developed to satisfy the needs and not desires. Mahatma Gandhi once aptly forecasted, Earth has enough to satisfy everyone’s need but not everyone’s greed. Man has developed these technologies to help the human community bring peace, comfort and social harmony. While developing these technologies, the intension at the back of his mind should be to bring forth something that would have super-amazing and assertive impact to the lives of the people, the community the nation and the world at large. As quoted by a spiritual leader, “People were created to be loved. Things were created to be used. The reason why the world is in chaos is because things are being loved and people are being used.” This statement has made a severe impact on me and thus compelled me to jot down my thoughts.

To discuss this topic extensively, let’s consider a graph that consists of an X-axis, a Y-axis and a Z-axis. Here X-axis represents the human needs and Y-axis represents the human desires. Having studied software modeling and design, let’s give this a UML spin. The entities plotted in the graph are the actors that are plotted as per their desires and needs. Here I can expressively list out three prominent actors- naïve person, normal person and a passionate person. A naïve person is near to the center as he has less desires and less needs. A normal person has moderate needs but less desires. A passionate person has both more needs and more desires. All the three actors here not satisfied at all and have some sort of desires and the probability of this desires increase with the successful satisfaction of previous desires. Greater the urge to satisfy themselves, greater is the probability of dissatisfaction at the longer run. And because of this the Z-axis comes to picture that is happiness and on it hardly any actor has found the place to plot it.

As a soon-to-be Software Engineer, I have realized that, off late, there are a lot many things that have been developed that help make software development anyone’s cup of tea. There has been a change from the way we used to code earlier to the way we code now. Earlier we used to write 20,000 lines of code entirely on our own. Then came the frameworks. Java, being my girlfriend, I will speak on her behalf and will be loyal to her. Earlier the codes were written extensively on notepads, environments were setup by using global and local variables and then were run on command prompts. If there are 10 java files then all these files had to be compiled collectively and debugged individually. Well, that really tested one’s patience. To overcome this drawback, various frameworks were introduced to the market by our grandfather / father of open source, Apache. Apache Foundations brought forth various frameworks like Ant, Maven, for integration and collective building of files. Then came integrated development environments where all the codes were written and compiled automatically and also built automatically. And then… (my favorite part) came the celebrities with cut-throat competition- development frameworks – Java Server Faces (JSF) with amazing user experience plus robust design, Spring with appreciable Inversion of Control (IoC) and Dependency Injections (DI), Hibernate with amazing object relation mapping capabilities and what not. These things really amazed me. But again technology continued to surprise me when Docker, Jenkins and Bamboo were introduced in the market.

Well, these technologies have proven themselves time and again; especially when faster, integrated and test driven development is concerned. Earlier these were the only things that amazed me until I came to my B.E. (final year) and was appointed to serve as the Chair of the I2IT ACM Student Chapter. In my third year of my engineering I only studied the technologies and did nothing constructive with that knowledge. When endowed with the responsibility as Chair, I realized that more capable than technology is HUMAN BEINGS, because he is the one who has developed these technologies. As usual I took the primary task of developing the ACM student chapter portal along with the webmaster of the chapter. I thought my portal will play the primary role in attracting the most registrations. But it was the people (members) who were the primary drivers of registrations and they brought in around 90+ registrations. While conducting a national level project competition event, I was appointed as the team lead, hence was the overseer on all aspects of the event. Being the person at the helm of the affairs, I was ridden with anxiety, worry and tension about the forthcoming event; after all my reputation and credibility were at stake here.  The comforting words of assurance and unflinching support from my team members and juniors laid my worries to rest. And that is when I realized that my girlfriend (Java) never gave me this assurance… ever. And that led me to believe that research is about collaborating with people primarily and technologies secondarily. It is imperative to understand that in this run that we all have been part of, we have forgotten to love ourselves and other humans and have begun embracing technologies / gadgets which do not allay our emotional worries and ultimately only push us to live in the state of anxiety and all-time-tension.

To conclude, I would say that while technology plays a very vital role in our lives – now and in the future as well, it’s a need as well as a desire to use it wisely and judiciously in various aspects like social campaigning, correcting the mislead and unguided lobbies, educating the under-privileged and alleviating the lives of our fellow beings. Then and only then would be all be together on the fast track of the growth of societies, nations and the entire human race.

To be a good human first is the key to be good engineer or a professional!

Author Name:

Harsh Khajgiwale

B.E. (IT)

I²IT, Pune

The author is a graduating student at International Institute of Information Technology (I²IT), Pune, Maharashtra, India.  He will be graduating in Summer 2017, and has a genuine passion for J2EE based application development.  He developed the open innovation platform for “Kalam Research and Innovation Community (KRIC)” for I²IT and has taken various initiatives to facilitate research and development at academic level among the student community.  He aims to apply his knowledge and skills learned to build a career in web based application development.

Convergence of technologies especially Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has transformed the society over the last 30 years. Though the first computers accessible to a common man happened only by 1971, the way of miniaturization of electronics devices have evolved and have resulted in wired and wireless world communicating every second. The rise of handheld devices like mobile phones, tablets etc have added more mobility to human beings in span of a decade rather than transportation systems based mobility in centuries. All kinds of data whether video, audio or sensor data are generated and communicated every second. Computational science which is constantly evolving has made computing faster while innovating the way computation is done. Applied computing has found its importance in every aspect of life from modeling apparels to modeling space systems to modeling universe to even modeling life. Intelligent computing has made design, operation and control of living & non-living things a daily affair.
Computational capabilities of machines have reached the crescendo in establishing a platform for Virtual world which has been imagined by human brain itself. The evolution of digital world starting from transistors invented in 1947, has now reached a paradigm shift in how the humans have created a new world for themselves. Self-learning, self-controlling and self-communicating standalone intelligent systems have enabled an entirely different aspect of view point in recent years.
Virtual reality uses the programming abilities to create totally new environment or replicate existing environment. This is coupled with ability of the user to interact and interface virtual objects and spaces in that environment. Graphics, games and simulations have fled open the gates wherein each individual recreates his imagination in a virtual world. In the similar way augmented reality has enabled users to directly or indirectly view real environment and at the same time interact with it using computer generate audio, video or touch. Basically the computer programs enable the user to supplement the real world environment with objects created through computer. In a broader sense virtual reality, intelligent systems and automation will slowly replace different aspects of industry, human interaction and transform the progress of the human species at large.
In this context, India’s Information Technology (IT) and Information Technology Enabled Service’s (ITeS) industry have transformed the landscape over the last three decades. The total economy of India has been refreshed by IT service industry since economic liberalization in 1991. India has almost become a high-quality-but-low-cost-back-office of many multinational corporations providing support and services. But in recent times automation, virtual reality and intelligent systems are propelling the industry towards a work culture wherein developers, programmers and hardware engineers have to work hand- in-hand. The ever-evolving mobile communication technology, Internet of Things, automated & intelligent industry, digital manufacturing, healthcare, entertainment, commerce and virtual reality based life have necessitated a new kind of professionals who have understanding of certain programming languages, maintain a database and also interact with computing, communicating and controlling embedded platforms.

The current requirement in the industry is purely based on sound knowledge of Artificial intelligence, so as to design intelligent systems, machine learning to support and aid divergent thinking, automation to replace dependency on human factor, fast computing based powerful handheld mobile platforms and robotics to perform 4D’s (4D: Dangerous, Dirty, Dull, Difficult) tasks on behalf of humans. AI based systems provide the ability to human species to perform 4A’s (Automation, Augmentation, Assistance, Autonomous) tasks. Aritififcal intelligence is a broad name suggesting concepts developed over the years and which are being implemented today due to ability of computing platforms like microprocessor, graphical processors and microcontroller to compute large volume of data in short duration. AI can be roguhly deifined as the ability of the man made of computing devices to replicate and perfom cognitive functions of human brain. The basic goal of AI to relaize reasoning, inherent knowledge, learning ,perception, language synthezie and the ability to manipulate materials similar to human sensorsy-motor actions using forelimbs and hindlimbs. The ultimate goal of AI is to achive complexity and flexibilty like human brains. The formal methods to achieve these goals are statistical methods, computational intelligence and traidional AI tools. The traidional AI tools include are symbolic approaches to computing problems. The most commonly used symbolic approach has been expert systems. Whenever symbolic represetnations failed to acheive the decision making ability modified representation using fuzzy logic and aritifical neural networks were developed. Todays IT service industry dogmated by emergcence of Aritificial intelligence especially
machine learning . Now what are these modern day tools of AI and why it is replacing IT and software professional, and how to choose a career with long term prespective instead of being just dependent on Service related jobs either in IT industry or manufacturing industry. How to be the most demanded creative engineer in this context? Its better to understand the current aspect of AI to get an overall idea and understanding where human research in AI gravitating.

Modern AI tools have become more human like tools with progressive integration of higher level intellgence aspects of human brains’s cognitive abilities. These abilities include slow and steady progress towards myth emotions,creativity, imagnation, dreams, higher philosophy and ultimate
consiousness. But though these utopian abilities are long term ,currently the progresses are being made toward acheiveing these goals. The methodlogies include cybernetics & brain simualtion, symbolic intellgience, mahcine learning , cognitive simualtions, logic programming, knowledge based computing, embodies computing, computational intelligence, machine learning or self learning systems and other forms of intelligent computing. Now the question arieses how to acheive these ultimate goals. The complex process cognition can be acheived only through integrating different methodologies . The two most common appraoches are agent architecture and cognitive architecture. Describing each and every aspect of AI beyond the scope of this article. But its better to stand the tools required to implement these methodologies. The tools include machine intelligence to search large database and optimize a solution ( search algorithm, mathematical optimization, evolutionary algorithm) , logic based programming ( automated
reasoning, logic based decisions), probablisitic tools (bayesian networks, kalmann filtering, decision theory, utility theory), classifiers (classical mathematics, machine learning, statisical classification), neural networks ( Aritifical Neural Networks (ANN), connectionism), Deep
feedforward neural networks ( deep learning, image processing, computer vision, speech processing, natural language processing), Deep recurrent neural networks and intelligent control system based hierachy based approach. It‘s imperative to understand the applications of AI in day to day life. These include healthcare (Intelligent Operating Theatre, Automated surgical tools), automotive industry( self driving vehicles, drones, unmanned aerial vehicles, self guiding missiles), Finance ( stock market predictions,evalauting sustainance of trading mechanism ,financial engineering), gaming (virtual reality, augumented reality, brain machine interface) , Interenet of Things , Space robotics,
Biorootics and many other applications. For an aspiring engineer its imperative to have a solid foundation in mathematics and logics. Having basic degree in Computer Engineering, Information Technology or electronics engineering is a must. But what makes the difference is the mindset to think and work towards the solutions. Just knowing basic skills of programming lanaguages like C, C++ or Java is not sufficient . Real computing and creative thought process is the minimum requirement in the current scenario. A basic degree should be followed up with a specialization in particular areas of AI at Masters level and finally a PhD could give you the space to explore; especially for those who are interested in research.

For more details please do visit us at www.ppcrc.in

Author Name

Prof. Rabinder Henry
Director
Pralhad P Chhabria Research Centre, Pune
www.ppcrc.in
www.isquareit.edu.in
www.famt.ac.in

Prof. Rabinder. Henry is currently the Director at Pralhad P.Chhabria Research Center, Pune (A Project of Finolex). His thrust areas of work have been in transforming the education system specifically in Engineering Higher Education by making it more applied intelligence oriented. Formerly been Director for Engineering Colleges and also been CTO in the industry. He has a Master of Science Degrees in RF & Microwave Engineering (1) and Photonics (2) from Technical University Dresden and Master of Science in Medical Systems Engineering (3) form University of Magdeburg, Germany. He has worked with Fraunhofer Institute for Photonics Microsystems, Institute for Mikrosystemtechnik, Magdbeurg and Helmholtz Zentrum Rossendorf, Germany. His areas of interest include Microwave Engineering, Microfabrication, Bio implants, Photonics, Nanotechnology andconvergence of technology. Professional member of many bodies IEEE, VLSI Society of India, ISTE, and ISC etc. Established Institutes at Meerut, Jaipur and Pune.
His profile has been published by Marquis Publications in Who’s Who in World 2009. Global Young Leader by UNDP (United
Nations Development Program) for Peace Initiative in 2008. Awarded by Society for Reliability Engineering, Quality andOperations Management (SREQOM) for Innovative Applications of Information Technology in Interdisciplinary areas in Scienceand Technology, December 2009.

Engineering is everywhere from living things to non-living things it’s all about imagination and
passion to create. Dreams, passion, interest and motivation are the four basic qualities that shape
an individual’s life. Knowledge and skill sets determine the nature of career that students choose
to pursue. Present day technology enhanced lifestyle and comforts have become possible only
because of the vision and passion of a few who created it way before the current generation.
Engineering education is a platform that provides the right environment and foundation for
students to innovate, invent, discover, create and implement their own creative ideas and vision.
But unfortunately over the last three decades higher education in India especially technology and
engineering related professional courses have become a gateway for short-term career and easy
way to earn money. Our Indian society has embraced B.E or B.Tech degrees just for the sake of
IT jobs or IT service related industry jobs. Money and lifestyle has become the only motivation
that has led to such a high demand for engineering education in India. In this mad rush,
individuality and capability of many students have been lost to desktop-based service jobs in IT
sectors. And the most important blow to our country has been loss of great minds.
In this context, and present state of engineering higher education in India it’s important to
interpret, analyze and understand who should pursue engineering education. Every individual has
the freedom of choice & the right to fulfill his/her own dreams and goals in life based on his / her
interests and passion. But many students who are about to complete their higher secondary
school education get carried away by overwhelming advice given by their parents, friends and
media towards engineering degrees.
School education in India from fifth standard onwards only focuses on scoring marks based on
student’s memory. Unfortunately the schooling system doesn’t allow the students to explore and
understand their strengths and weaknesses. The system also doesn’t provide the opportunity to
realize individual student’s area of interest and an avenue for expression. This hollow mindset
has translated into students and parents looking at engineering education as a means for IT
service jobs or BPO jobs. And sadly, the current state of (outsourced) IT service industry is
struggling with VISA issues and protectionist sentiments from across the world. Many countries
have restricted skilled based immigration pattern which has been the norm for last 4 decades. It
is pathetic to note that under the garb of globalization and skewed capitalism based economic
principles, delegations are sent across developed countries to minimize visa restrictions. If our
country had been a nation of inventors, solution providers and innovators, the current state could
have been avoided.

Secondly, students may follow their passion they had since childhood which they had identified
in themselves, even before entering secondary classes. Passion being a non-parametric factor
which is combination of will power and natural instinct, it is difficult to define it. From a bird’s
eye perspective it’s the happy feeling, contentment and being at peace with oneself, when one
makes effort to learn, think and try to improve their understanding of a subject or any activity
then that’s can be approximately defined as their passion. Some students show more interest in
breaking toys and playing with them, but some try to build their toys on their own by
understanding how it works; that’s their skill set and intellectual ability to create. In this scenario
the role of parents should be to identify those interests in their wards and try to provide them the
facility. Every child through his / her growing years show his / her passions / interest and parents
are supposed to identify and nurture those talents and not twist it and subtly or indirectly
brainwash children into pursuing engineering or medicine as a career. A family’s economic
background cannot and will not deter an individual from pursuing his/her passion. The famous
scientist Jagdish Chandra Bose started his research in a small area (a 24-square-feet room)
because he did not receive much support from the then government. Or for that matter Sir C.V.
Raman started research institute with very little money in hand. But it’s their motivation to
conduct research and to know the unknown that made them successful in their chosen field. They
were not influenced by the materialistic career but they achieved what they were passionate
about.
Thirdly the society has created a myth in the minds of young students that getting a B.E degree is
imperative to get an IT job; irrespective of the stream. This is followed by the social and family
pressure to buy a house, marry and settle down. That’s the best that life could offer!. If this not
case then students are coaxed to go abroad, preferably to USA, Canada, UK, and Australia to
earn money. It does not matter whether the jobs one gets in the foreign lands has nothing to do
with their education or the degree they earned. This is clearly shows the mindset of the present
society which primarily focuses on materialistic pursuit by letting go of values and intellectbased
life. The media and society only focuses on a few successful stories of expatriates and very
conveniently leave out the reality of the majority who are struggling and are working on lowly
paid jobs available in those countries, just to maintain the illusion back home that they are living
abroad. But many would acknowledge that more than half the Indian students abroad don’t lead a
comfortable life and miserably end up in low end jobs unable to adopt and adapt to the new
learning system. Nothing wrong in these single minded aspirations of material pursuit and
immigrating abroad but this mindset has led to service oriented society incapable of making and
producing its own technological requirements in a globalized world.
Even today India has to import most of the defense equipment, 90 % medical devices like x-ray,
MRI, CT and other medical laboratory equipment which are not manufactured in India,
commercial aircraft are not manufactured in India and most of all, even the basic semiconductor
industry that manufactures electronic products like mobiles, tablets and chips are totally absent in
India. Even the most important industry in India, Agriculture, still follows the 20th century
technology. Wealth alone cannot make a society happy and content, the ability to create wealth
through technology and engineering in all aspects of life is what makes an individual, society and
a country stronger and independent.
Though engineering education is for professional employment too; it’s not just for jobs. The
main aim of engineering education is to bring out the ability to express oneself in terms of
creating novel things, devices, equipment and structures. It’s a way to explore the interface
between man-made world and nature. The school education system in India has failed to make
young eager minds understand the basics of how and where knowledge is moving to. In India,
it’s unfortunate that even many qualified engineers don’t know the basic differences and how
different domains can be inter-related. Science is the basic ability of human species to explore,
observe, analyze and understand the universe within their limits of intellectual ability through the
basic five senses. Technology is the ability of humans to create tools, crafts and equipment’s
based on the knowledge obtained through science for their own comforts by developing different
application platforms. Engineering is the process of building that technology through design,
fabrication, and manufacturing and in realizing that technology. Mathematics is the foundation of
all the three which is ably supported by inherent human skills of speech and communication. In
India more focus has been given to superficial communication and basic arithmetic skills and
these skills are enough to fill the huge requirements in service sectors of different industries. But
today engineering, technological and science education has all been converging towards a more
complex and interesting future. This requires lot of creativity and passion. 20 years ago nobody
could have imagined that a mobile phone or tablet would be accessible to all (that too with touch
screen) but today it’s a reality. That has been made possible only through research and
developments. These research and developments have been accomplished through dreams and
passions of individuals working together in engineering and technology.
Another most important aspect of studying engineering is the implementation of concepts and
theory practically through design and fabrication. Since, schools in India do not provide the right
environment and facilities for laboratory skills; it will be fascinating to do the same in
engineering education. Though not all engineering colleges provide the freedom and flexibility
to learn practically but best ones provide the right facilities. To do real experiments what one
requires is easily available within a house. What is needed is real passion & creativity to design,
construct and operate devices. But the Indian educational environment and the society haven’t
encouraged this in young minds. This has resulted in grooming of engineers who aren’t willing
to get their hands dirty but are more than eager to fill the chairs in office complexes. In
developed countries children are encouraged to be independent and create with their own hands
from kindergarten. This is one the main reason why most of the modern gadgets, instruments and
devices are invented or designed in such countries.
From radio, to television, to computer every modern facility has been imported from the west
and our country’s contribution to modern technology is almost nothing.
Engineering education in most of the colleges in India is no different from school education
based on solving exam papers using memorized texts. But at least some provide the right
environment and surrounding for budding engineers. If one has the ability to dream, think,
understand, analyze and create, then engineering is for them. If one has the passion to challenge
themselves irrespective of the material gains then it’s engineering. Don’t take up engineering for
the sake of jobs. Aspire to be an engineer, only and only if one wants to pursue it with heart and
mind.

Author Name:
Prof.Rabinder Henry
Director
Pralhad P Chhabria Research Center (PPCRC), Pune
For innovation and research visit us at
www.ppcrc.in
www.isquareit.edu.in
www.famt.ac.in
Prof. Rabinder. Henry is currently the Director at Pralhad P.Chhabria Research Center, Pune (A Project of Finolex). His thrust
areas of work have been in transforming the education system specifically in Engineering Higher Education by making it more
applied intelligence oriented. Formerly been Director for Engineering Colleges and also been CTO in the industry. He has a
Master of Science Degrees in RF & Microwave Engineering (1) and Photonics (2) from Technical University Dresden and
Master of Science in Medical Systems Engineering (3) form University of Magdeburg, Germany. He has worked with Fraunhofer
Institute for Photonics Microsystems, Institute for Mikrosystemtechnik, Magdbeurg and Helmholtz Zentrum Rossendorf,
Germany. His areas of interest include Microwave Engineering, Microfabrication, Bio implants, Photonics, Nanotechnology and
convergence of technology. Professional member of many bodies IEEE, VLSI Society of India, ISTE, and ISC etc. Established
Institutes at Meerut, Jaipur and Pune.
His profile has been published by Marquis Publications in Who’s Who in World 2009. Global Young Leader by UNDP (United
Nations Development Program) for Peace Initiative in 2008. Awarded by Society for Reliability Engineering, Quality and
Operations Management (SREQOM) for Innovative Applications of Information Technology in Interdisciplinary areas in Science
and Technology, December 2009.

!! Robotics, The ultimate road ahead of human species!!

Robotics has been fascinating the mind-set of human species since the last century. It has
redefined the way humans have been advancing their lives. The word “robota” meaning work
was coined by Czech playwright and author Karl Capek in 1921. Seemingly, today robotics is
defining every aspect of human life and how humans are shaping the future of the world and
the universe at large.
First generation robotics was all about automation of mechanical structure performing
ordinary functions meant for humans. With the advent of electricity and electronics,
programmable manipulators referred to as industrial robots performing dull, difficult, dirty
and dangerous tasks laid the foundation for industrial revolution and manufacturing
industries. This era is referred as second generation robotics. The third generation of robotics
began with the development of computing platforms like microprocessors, microcontrollers
and reconfigurable computing devices. The fast computing devices resulted in the growth of
domestic robotics and completely automated the functioning industries by performing
adventurous, augmentative, and adaptive tasks not feasible for humans.
The fourth generation robotics based on artificial intelligence, machine learning and selflearning
systems coupled with rapid advancement in miniaturization of devices, sensors,
driver systems, and actuators have resulted in lighter, smarter and intelligent systems. Space
travel, deep sea exploration, defence vehicles, drones, medical surgery, domestic life and
entertainment have been transformed by intelligent robotics systems.
The fifth generation of robotics combines reconfigurable mechanical structures like
transformers, biology-inspired systems and materials like cyborgs, intelligent integrative
humanoids, and material science to replicate not just functionality of living things like
humans but also extending the capabilities which were not possible decades ago. The real
reason behind the human progress is to be defined by convergence of information technology,
biotechnology, cognitive technology and material technology.
Recently, there has been a drastic change in Information Technology (IT) and IT Enabled
Service (ITES) Industry wherein self-learning systems and machine learning are slowly
replacing service professionals. These small steps are the reflections of how the future
industry would work. Combined with digital and automated manufacturing systems, Robotics
and Artificial Intelligence will reshape the coming decades similar to what has been done
with regard to wireless communication industry (mobile phones) and its implications on
society at large.
The recent breakthroughs in brain machine interfaces and the ease of transferring information
between a digital system and living brain in tandem with virtual reality in a two way
communication system provides capabilities for the human species to explore space and time
as never before.

Multidisciplinary aspect of Robotics

Figure 1: Multidisciplinary aspect of Robotics
For an aspiring student who has genuine interest to design and built robots one can take
different paths to achieve the goal. First and foremost one must have solid foundation in basic
engineering like electronics, communication, mechanical and information technology. Based
on this basic knowledge one can start building one’s career. Since Robotics and artificial
intelligence are multidisciplinary fields, it’s better to specialize in one domain like
programming skills, embedded system development, basic discrete electronics, or wireless
communication systems or reconfigurable mechanical system. But the basic requirement is to
have good understanding of formal science that is mathematics and logic. Being a master of
one and jack of a couple of other fields allows an engineer to be not just a skilled labourer but
also knowledgeable and creative. In the transient scenario in the Information Technology,
Manufacturing, transportation systems and mobile computing industries, Machine learning
and mobile communication based hand held devices are totally transforming the working
environment. This requires additional understanding of Artificial intelligence (AI).
Please do follow up with the article on intelligent systems to understand more about AI.
For further information regarding how to establish an exciting career please visit us at
www.ppcrc.in

Author Name:
Prof. Rabinder Henry
Director
Pralhad P Chhabria Research Center, Pune
www.ppcrc.in
www.isquareit.edu.in
www.famt.ac.in

Prof. Rabinder. Henry is currently the Director at Pralhad P.Chhabria Research Center, Pune (A Project of Finolex). His
thrust areas of work have been in transforming the education system specifically in Engineering Higher Education by
making it more applied intelligence oriented. Formerly been Director for Engineering Colleges and also been CTO in the
industry. He has a Master of Science Degrees in RF & Microwave Engineering (1) and Photonics (2) from Technical
University Dresden and Master of Science in Medical Systems Engineering (3) form University of Magdeburg, Germany. He
has worked with Fraunhofer Institute for Photonics Microsystems, Institute for Mikrosystemtechnik, Magdbeurg and
Helmholtz Zentrum Rossendorf, Germany. His areas of interest include Microwave Engineering, Microfabrication, Bio
implants, Photonics, Nanotechnology and convergence of technology. Professional member of many bodies IEEE, VLSI
Society of India, ISTE, and ISC etc. Established Institutes at Meerut, Jaipur and Pune.
His profile has been published by Marquis Publications in Who’s Who in World 2009. Global Young Leader by UNDP
(United Nations Development Program) for Peace Initiative in 2008. Awarded by Society for Reliability Engineering,
Quality and Operations Management (SREQOM) for Innovative Applications of Information Technology in Interdisciplinary
areas in Science and Technology, December 2009.

Convergence of technologies especially Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has transformed the society in last 30 years. Though the first computers accessible to even common man made their way only by 1971, the way miniaturization of electronics devices have evolved has resulted in wired and wireless world communicating every second. The rise of handheld devices like mobile phones, tablets etc have added more mobility to human beings in span of a decade rather than transportation systems based mobility in centuries. All kinds of data whether video, audio or sensor data are generated and communicated every second. Computational science which is constantly evolving has made computing faster and faster while it innovates they way computation is done. Applied computing has found it importance in every aspect of life from modeling of apparels to modeling of space systems to modeling of universe to even modeling life. Intelligent computing has made design, operation and control of living & non-living things a daily affair.

Computational capabilities of computing machines have reached crescendo in establishing a platform for Virtual world which has been imagined by human brain itself. The evolution of digital world starting from transistors invented in 1947, has now reached a paradigm shift in how the humans have created a new world for themselves.  Self-learning, self-controlling and self-communicating standalone intelligent systems have enabled entirely different aspect of view point in recent years.

Virtual reality uses the programming abilities to create totally new environment or replicate existing environment. This is coupled with ability of the user to interact and interface virtual objects and spaces in that environment. Graphics, games and simulations have fled open the gates wherein each individual recreates his imagination as virtual world. In similar way augmented reality has enabled users to directly or indirectly view real environment and at the same time interact with it using computer generate audio, video or touch. Basically the computer programs enable the user to supplement the real world environment with objects created through computer. In a broader sense Virtual reality, intelligent systems and automation will slowly replace different aspects of industry, human interaction and progress of the human species at large.

In this context, India’s Information Technology (IT) and Information Technology Enabled Service’s (ITeS) industry have transformed the landscape in last three decades. The total economy of India has been refreshed by IT service industry since liberalization in 1991. It has almost become high quality but low cost back office of many multinational corporations providing support and services. But in recent time’s automation, virtual reality and intelligent systems are propelling the industry towards a work culture wherein developers, programmers and hardware engineers have to work hand- in-hand. The ever evolving mobile communication technology, Internet of Things, automated & intelligent industry, digital manufacturing, healthcare, entertainment, commerce and virtual reality based life have necessitated a new kind of professionals who have understanding of certain programming languages, maintain a database and also interact with computing, communicating and controlling embedded platforms.

Considering these factors and realizing the importance of technology shift, I2IT Trust/Society has setup a research center in the name of  Late.Shri.P.P.Chhabria , Founder-Chairman of Finolex Industries to carry forward his  vision. He being a person who was ahead of times substantiates the importance of research and development in futuristic areas. Along with traditional way of academic culture in India like institutions run by I2IT trust including engineering colleges at Pune and Ratnagiri, this new center would focus on interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary areas of Science ,Engineering and Technology under one roof. This not for profit platform of I2IT trust abodes and supports high end research and development for the country and the world at large broadly categorized under The research areas are grouped under major themes of Intelligent Systems, Engineering Systems, Electronic & Photonic System, Cognitive Systems and Applied Materials Systems. The research includes areas like IOT, 3D-printing, Virtual reality, Nanobiotechnology, Photonics Integrated circuits, Robotics, Nanosatellites and optogenetics. Please do visit (www.ppcrc.in) for details and looking forward to readers, industrial colleagues and academicians support in this new endeavor.

Author Name:

Ms.Aruna Katara

President

I2IT Trust /Society

Photonics Integrated Circuits

Light is the source of life on earth. It has been the guiding force for human species since they evolved on the surface of the earth. Humans have been trying to harness light energy for improving their living environment for over thousands of years. It’s the ability of the humans to visually see things which has inspired their imagination to create technology by understanding the working of things from nature.

In the last two centuries with the advent of modernity and technological breakthroughs light has become integral part of our day to day life. Today, transmission of visual images is a common phenomenon. Light engulfs every technological aspects of life from medicine, photography, guidance systems, navigation systems, industrial manufacturing etc. Generating light, transmitting light and manipulating light properties for various applications has contributed to the development of many technologies like fiber optic communication systems, laser based engineering systems, optics, light based diagnostics & therapeutic systems, sensor systems etc.

Technological limitations posed by electronics based devices in-terms of miniaturization in further reducing dimensional aspects of devices and systems, have led to considering optical integrated circuits in recent decades. Similar to Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits (VLSI) using electron as medium for transmissions of signal, Photon as a signal carrier in integrated circuit using basic optical devices has evolved as Photonics Integrated Circuits (PIC).

phonotics integrated circuits

Figure 1: Photonics Integrated Circuit.
PIC based Integrated Circuits have many advantages compared to electronics based circuit design. This is an emerging technology in tandem with electronics. Though there are specific detailed courses to groom professionals in physics, semiconductor technology, microfabrication and Computer Aided Tools for photonic circuit design, there is need for professionals who can design and fabricate such PIC devices.

Traditionally most of the domains related to light based technology have been much narrowed down to specialization. But with increasing requirement of bandwidth and transfer of huge amount of data, light based technology today encompasses opto-electronics, photonics, optics, fiber optics, biomedical optics, laser, optical data storage, quantum optics, nano-optics and optical computing. Developing these systems on a micro and nano scale has resulted in separate domain which encompasses all the disciplines at miniaturized dimensions as PIC. This ever evolving PIC discipline has seen exponential growth in last one decade. This has resulted in VLSI CAD tool companies to include PIC design as part of CAD. Tools like CADENCE, SYNOPYS which were traditionally focusing on VLSI design have today PIC component as a part.

For an aspiring engineer who wants to play with light and design new age technologies could basically start with engineering degree in Electronics and Telecommunication. This has to be followed with specialization in Photonics, Engineering Physics, Fiber optics, at Masters Level. Masters degree can be followed by a doctoral degree in a focused area. In recent times the demand for engineers who are trained and well-groomed in Photonics has increased manifold around the world. Especially for those who are interested in Physics as well as application oriented engineering, Photonics could be that domain which allows the individual to execute his/her idea.

Prof.Rabinder Henry
Director
Pralhad P Chhabria Research Center (PPCRC), Pune
For innovation and research visit us at
www.ppcrc.in
www.isquareit.edu.in
www.famt.ac.in

Prof. Rabinder. Henry is currently the Director at Pralhad P.Chhabria Research Center, Pune (A Project of Finolex). His thrust areas of work have been in transforming the education system specifically in Engineering Higher Education by making it more applied intelligence oriented. Formerly been Director for Engineering Colleges and also been CTO in the industry. He has a Master of Science Degrees in RF & Microwave Engineering (1) and Photonics (2) from Technical University Dresden and Master of Science in Medical Systems Engineering (3) form University of Magdeburg, Germany. He has worked with Fraunhofer Institute for Photonics Microsystems, Institute for Mikrosystemtechnik, Magdbeurg and Helmholtz Zentrum Rossendorf, Germany. His areas of interest include Microwave Engineering, Microfabrication, Bio implants, Photonics, Nanotechnology and convergence of technology. Professional member of many bodies IEEE, VLSI Society of India, ISTE, and ISC etc. Established Institutes at Meerut, Jaipur and Pune.

His profile has been published by Marquis Publications in Who’s Who in World 2009. Global Young Leader by UNDP (United Nations Development Program) for Peace Initiative in 2008. Awarded by Society for Reliability Engineering, Quality and Operations Management (SREQOM) for Innovative Applications of Information Technology in Interdisciplinary areas in Scienceand Technology, December 2009.

Photonics Integrated Circuits

Light is the source of life on earth. It has been the guiding force for human species since they evolved on the surface of the earth. Humans have been trying to harness light energy for improving their living environment for over thousands of years. It’s the ability of the humans to visually see things which has inspired their imagination to create technology by understanding the working of things from nature.

In the last two centuries with the advent of modernity and technological breakthroughs light has become integral part of our day to day life. Today, transmission of visual images is a common phenomenon. Light engulfs every technological aspects of life from medicine, photography, guidance systems, navigation systems, industrial manufacturing etc. Generating light, transmitting light and manipulating light properties for various applications has contributed to the development of many technologies like fiber optic communication systems, laser based engineering systems, optics, light based diagnostics & therapeutic systems, sensor systems etc.

Technological limitations posed by electronics based devices in-terms of miniaturization in further reducing dimensional aspects of devices and systems, have led to considering optical integrated circuits in recent decades. Similar to Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits (VLSI) using electron as medium for transmissions of signal, Photon as a signal carrier in integrated circuit using basic optical devices has evolved as Photonics Integrated Circuits (PIC).

phonotics integrated circuits

Figure 1: Photonics Integrated Circuit.
PIC based Integrated Circuits have many advantages compared to electronics based circuit design. This is an emerging technology in tandem with electronics. Though there are specific detailed courses to groom professionals in physics, semiconductor technology, microfabrication and Computer Aided Tools for photonic circuit design, there is need for professionals who can design and fabricate such PIC devices.

Traditionally most of the domains related to light based technology have been much narrowed down to specialization. But with increasing requirement of bandwidth and transfer of huge amount of data, light based technology today encompasses opto-electronics, photonics, optics, fiber optics, biomedical optics, laser, optical data storage, quantum optics, nano-optics and optical computing. Developing these systems on a micro and nano scale has resulted in separate domain which encompasses all the disciplines at miniaturized dimensions as PIC. This ever evolving PIC discipline has seen exponential growth in last one decade. This has resulted in VLSI CAD tool companies to include PIC design as part of CAD. Tools like CADENCE, SYNOPYS which were traditionally focusing on VLSI design have today PIC component as a part.

For an aspiring engineer who wants to play with light and design new age technologies could basically start with engineering degree in Electronics and Telecommunication. This has to be followed with specialization in Photonics, Engineering Physics, Fiber optics, at Masters Level. Masters degree can be followed by a doctoral degree in a focused area. In recent times the demand for engineers who are trained and well-groomed in Photonics has increased manifold around the world. Especially for those who are interested in Physics as well as application oriented engineering, Photonics could be that domain which allows the individual to execute his/her idea.

Prof.Rabinder Henry
Director
Pralhad P Chhabria Research Center (PPCRC), Pune
For innovation and research visit us at
www.ppcrc.in
www.isquareit.edu.in
www.famt.ac.in

Prof. Rabinder. Henry is currently the Director at Pralhad P.Chhabria Research Center, Pune (A Project of Finolex). His thrust areas of work have been in transforming the education system specifically in Engineering Higher Education by making it more applied intelligence oriented. Formerly been Director for Engineering Colleges and also been CTO in the industry. He has a Master of Science Degrees in RF & Microwave Engineering (1) and Photonics (2) from Technical University Dresden and Master of Science in Medical Systems Engineering (3) form University of Magdeburg, Germany. He has worked with Fraunhofer Institute for Photonics Microsystems, Institute for Mikrosystemtechnik, Magdbeurg and Helmholtz Zentrum Rossendorf, Germany. His areas of interest include Microwave Engineering, Microfabrication, Bio implants, Photonics, Nanotechnology and convergence of technology. Professional member of many bodies IEEE, VLSI Society of India, ISTE, and ISC etc. Established Institutes at Meerut, Jaipur and Pune.

His profile has been published by Marquis Publications in Who’s Who in World 2009. Global Young Leader by UNDP (United Nations Development Program) for Peace Initiative in 2008. Awarded by Society for Reliability Engineering, Quality and Operations Management (SREQOM) for Innovative Applications of Information Technology in Interdisciplinary areas in Scienceand Technology, December 2009.

Convergence of technologies especially Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has transformed the society in last 30 years. Though the first computers accessible to even common man made their way only by 1971, the way miniaturization of electronics devices have evolved has resulted in wired and wireless world communicating every second. The rise of handheld devices like mobile phones, tablets etc have added more mobility to human beings in span of a decade rather than transportation systems based mobility in centuries. All kinds of data whether video, audio or sensor data are generated and communicated every second. Computational science which is constantly evolving has made computing faster and faster while it innovates they way computation is done. Applied computing has found it importance in every aspect of life from modeling of apparels to modeling of space systems to modeling of universe to even modeling life. Intelligent computing has made design, operation and control of living & non-living things a daily affair.

Computational capabilities of computing machines have reached crescendo in establishing a platform for Virtual world which has been imagined by human brain itself. The evolution of digital world starting from transistors invented in 1947, has now reached a paradigm shift in how the humans have created a new world for themselves.  Self-learning, self-controlling and self-communicating standalone intelligent systems have enabled entirely different aspect of view point in recent years.

Virtual reality uses the programming abilities to create totally new environment or replicate existing environment. This is coupled with ability of the user to interact and interface virtual objects and spaces in that environment. Graphics, games and simulations have fled open the gates wherein each individual recreates his imagination as virtual world. In similar way augmented reality has enabled users to directly or indirectly view real environment and at the same time interact with it using computer generate audio, video or touch. Basically the computer programs enable the user to supplement the real world environment with objects created through computer. In a broader sense Virtual reality, intelligent systems and automation will slowly replace different aspects of industry, human interaction and progress of the human species at large.

In this context, India’s Information Technology (IT) and Information Technology Enabled Service’s (ITeS) industry have transformed the landscape in last three decades. The total economy of India has been refreshed by IT service industry since liberalization in 1991. It has almost become high quality but low cost back office of many multinational corporations providing support and services. But in recent time’s automation, virtual reality and intelligent systems are propelling the industry towards a work culture wherein developers, programmers and hardware engineers have to work hand- in-hand. The ever evolving mobile communication technology, Internet of Things, automated & intelligent industry, digital manufacturing, healthcare, entertainment, commerce and virtual reality based life have necessitated a new kind of professionals who have understanding of certain programming languages, maintain a database and also interact with computing, communicating and controlling embedded platforms.

Considering these factors and realizing the importance of technology shift, I2IT Trust/Society has setup a research center in the name of  Late.Shri.P.P.Chhabria , Founder-Chairman of Finolex Industries to carry forward his  vision. He being a person who was ahead of times substantiates the importance of research and development in futuristic areas. Along with traditional way of academic culture in India like institutions run by I2IT trust including engineering colleges at Pune and Ratnagiri, this new center would focus on interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary areas of Science ,Engineering and Technology under one roof. This not for profit platform of I2IT trust abodes and supports high end research and development for the country and the world at large broadly categorized under The research areas are grouped under major themes of Intelligent Systems, Engineering Systems, Electronic & Photonic System, Cognitive Systems and Applied Materials Systems. The research includes areas like IOT, 3D-printing, Virtual reality, Nanobiotechnology, Photonics Integrated circuits, Robotics, Nanosatellites and optogenetics. Please do visit (www.ppcrc.in) for details and looking forward to readers, industrial colleagues and academicians support in this new endeavor.

Author Name:

Ms.Aruna Katara

President

I2IT Trust /Society

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